Shellbark hickory commonly grows in association with American (Ulmus americana), slippery (U. rubra), and winged elms (U. alata), white (Fraxinus americana) and green ash (F. pennsylvanica), basswood (Tilia americana), American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), red maple (Acer rubrum), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and cottonwood (Populus deltoides). Hickory Tree Facts and Trivia. It is native to New York, southwest to Oklahoma, but has been introduced into Massachusetts. The seeds within shellbark hickory nuts are edible[5] and consumed by ducks, quail, wild turkeys, squirrels, chipmunks, deer, foxes, raccoons, and white-footed mice. An average minimum temperature of −26 °C (−15 °F) occurs in the northern part of the range, and an average maximum temperature of 38 °C (100 °F) is found throughout the range. Rooting habit: Shellbark hickory develops a large taproot that penetrates deeply into the soil. This species is native to the Chicago region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research. The shellbark hickory can be expected to grow in Hardiness Zones 5–8. Hickory Downy Leafspot. In general, species within the genus with the same chromosome number are able to cross. The hickory bark beetle (Scolytus quadrispinosus) feeds in the cambium and seriously weakens or even kills some trees. Like its cousin, Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), Shellbark hickory produces platy bark that separates into broad plates; its species name, laciniosa, means "folded." Carya Nutt. Carya laciniosa, the shellbark hickory, in the Juglandaceae or walnut family is also called shagbark hickory, bigleaf shagbark hickory, kingnut, big, bottom, thick, or western shellbark, attesting to some of its characteristics. Numerous hybrids among the Carya species with 32 chromosomes (pecan, bitternut, shellbark, and shagbark) have been described. A large number of insect species feed on hickory foliage. Wildlife and people harvest most of them; those remaining produce seedling trees readily. 658 p. 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T62019631A62019633.en, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.shtm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carya_laciniosa&oldid=982427953, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain works of the United States Government, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. coord. It is frequently found in the great river swamps of central Missouri and the Wabash River region in Indiana and Ohio. Major distinct lateral roots usually develop 12 inches or more below ground level and appear only after taproot is well formed. Long leaves with 7-9 downy leaflets emerge late each spring, and large buds and orange-brown twigs add winter interest. More than 130 fungi have been identified from species of Carya. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Shellbark hickory grows best on deep, fertile, moist soils, most typical of the order Alfisols. ), and shagbark hickory, C. ovata (C. x dunbarii Sarg.). Lateral roots emerge at nearly right angles to the taproot, spreading horizontally through the soil. Leaf Characteristics. It is a deciduous tree shedding its leaves during fall. Illustrations of Common Eastern United States Trees by Charles Sprague Sargent. Shellbark hickory resembles shagbark hickory in appearance. In Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Features compound, alternate leaves up to 22" long that consist of 5–9 large, fine-toothed leaflets. The leaves of the Shellbark Hickory are eaten by deer and other browsers while the nuts are consumed by deer, bear, foxes, rabbits, squirrels, chipmunks, wild turkey, and wood ducks. Both standing dead trees and freshly cut logs are highly susceptible to attacks by numerous species of wood borers. 1980. The wood is used for furniture, tool handles, sporting goods, veneer, fuelwood, charcoal, and drum sticks. f.) G. Don symbol: CALA21 Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound with 5 to 9 (usually 7 leaflets), 15 to 24 inches long, each leaflet obovate to lanceolate, dark-green above, paler and tomentose below. The species is a minor component of the forest cover types bur oak (Society of American Foresters type 42), pin oak–sweetgum (type 65), and swamp chestnut oak–cherrybark oak (type 91). It has a deep taproot, so it is difficult to transplant. 375 p. MacDaniels, L. H. 1979. p. 132-135. This tree grows at a slow rate, with height increases of less than 12" per year. Shagbark Hickory is a common Hickory tree belonging to the Carya genus. Yields a ripened nut crop in the fall. The shortest among the hickory species is shellbark, with a height of around 30 to 60 feet, and a trunk diameter of one to three feet. The species is scattered throughout Ohio, is often found in moist bottomlands where Shagbark Hickory usually does not grow. Shellbark Hickory. Second-growth trees show growth rates of 5 mm (3⁄16 in) per year. Female flowers are in small 2- to 5-flowered spikes. Growth and yield: The hickories as a group grow slowly in diameter, and shellbark hickory is no exception. It is resistant to snow and ice damage, but is susceptible to frost damage. Damaging agents: Although numerous insects and diseases affect hickories, shellbark hickory has no enemies that seriously threaten its development or perpetuation as a species. A million members, donors, and partners support our programs to make our world greener and healthier. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175. Shellbark Hickory is very rare in North Carolina, with only a few known stands. It is drought-tolerant. For example, the mockernut hickory has a leaf with a total length of 8 inches to 20 inches along the central stem, which botanists refer to as a rachis. It is a slow-growing, long-lived tree, hard to transplant because of its long taproot, and subject to insect damage. Flower and fruit: Male flowers are in 4- to 5-inch catkins. This species is most prominent in the lower Ohio River region and south along the Mississippi River to central Arkansas. Leaves are alternate, feather-compound, 8–17 inches long; leaflets 3–5, lance- to pear-shaped, 4–7 inches long, the end leaflet stalked; upper 3 leaflets quite larger than lower 2; pointed at the tip, margins toothed with tufts of hairs along the outer edge of the teeth. The Division of Forestry promotes and applies management for the sustainable use and protection of Ohio’s private and public forest lands. Two of the most important are the pecan weevil (Curculio caryae) and the hickory shuckworm (Laspeyresia caryana). With husk intact, the fruit is 1¾–2½ long. Is self-fertile, but it is best to plant more than one tree for best results. The heavy seeds do not travel far from the parent tree and many stands have been lost to forest clearing and lumber harvesting. Land subject to shallow inundations for a few weeks early in the growing season is favorable for shellbark. Sapling size trees average 2 mm ( ⁄32 in) per year in diameter growth, increasing to 3 mm ( ⁄8 in) per year as poles and sawtimber. W. F. Humphrey Press, Geneva, NY. Baker, Whiteford L. 1976. Shellbark leaves usually grow up to 24” (60 cm) long, and shagbark hickory leaves grow up to 10” (25 cm) long. Mature shagbarks are easy to recognize because, as their name implies, they …